The Humanitarian Military

Why we need new approaches to civil-military cooperation in humanitarian affairs

For as long as there have been wars, there has been the need to clean up after them. One of the most important tasks in post-conflict reconstruction has been to return societies to a state of normalcy. Traditionally, militaries and humanitarian organizations undertake this role separately, each with their own set of mandates. Beginning in the 1990s, however, their mandates began to intersect, with increasing intensity in the second half of the decade. The international community’s response thus far has been to clearly demarcate militaries and humanitarian actors, with strict guidelines prescribing their cooperation. The bad news? This approach is outdated, and needs fixing – urgently.

Human security was a concept first articulated in the United Nations Development Program’s 1994 Human Development Report. As a principle, it has formed the basis for military action in humanitarian crises, encompassing concerns and challenges above merely defending state sovereignty. Human security became a ubiquitous international norm with the conclusion of the Cold War. Peacekeeping has evolved from traditional missions to what the United Nations terms “complex multidimensional enterprises.” Militaries play a crucial stabilizing role in post-conflict situations, from peacekeeping operations in Sudan, to humanitarian assistance in the Horn of Africa. More national armed forces are participating in humanitarian and disaster relief operations and peace-support operations of increasing scope, complexity, and frequency.

What is the role for militaries in humanitarian crises?
Disciples of the famed Prussian General Carl von Clausewitz argue that military action should be an extension of strategy. Military forces therefore should engage in humanitarian efforts as part of a “deliberate strategy designed to encroach upon traditional humanitarian space,” according to the Humanitarian Practice Network, a UK-based humanitarian think-tank. Advocating for greater military involvement, defense officials point toward practical needs. They argue the need to respond to the perceived inadequacies in ground operations. External military forces must often maintain law and order, or provide military and political support to local governance structures that had been weakened by conflicts. Military support also provides assistance in delivering relief and protecting supplies, convoys, and staff.

Opponents blame military involvement for compromising the fundamental tenets of humanitarian aid, namely: impartiality, neutrality, and independence. What these principles mean is that aid must be disbursed solely on the basis of need, that aid organizations cannot take sides in a conflict, and that aid should only go towards humanitarian needs. These have a practical purpose. By adhering to these principles humanitarian organizations can gain access to people in need. Apolitical agencies such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, for instance, enjoy far better access to target populations for this very reason. When the founders of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), or Doctors Without Borders, left the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to establish their organization in 1971, they did so to emphasize the importance of bearing witness to endangered populations, an inherently political mission. Today, the ICRC is able to operate in many more locations than MSF.

Militaries are, by their very nature, partial. They weigh the costs and benefits of allying with certain groups over others, a calculation informed by geography and political, cultural and social affiliations. Intervention aligns militaries with humanitarian agencies, putting them at risk of local hostility. Dadaab, Kenya is home to a refugee camp housing the largest number of Somali refugees. After two of its aid workers were kidnapped from the Dadaab refugee camp in February 2012, MSF was quick to distance itself from the Kenyan government. Military involvement may often undermine humanitarian efforts.

Other skeptics among the humanitarian NGO community argue that military interventions are neither cost-effective nor practical. They say that military aid is unsustainable, merely focused on the short term, and unable to adapt to local conditions. Militaries are most often involved in humanitarian work in the aftermath of conflicts, an almost natural extension of their roles. In recent years this involvement has only intensified. In 2006, the United States Department of Defense released a directive boosting military involvement in post-conflict reconstruction efforts. This directive would increase collaborations between NGOs and the military and more governmental involvement in humanitarian assistance. Groups like Oxfam and the International Rescue Committee condemned the directive, citing the danger of politicizing humanitarian aid and crippling aid organizations’ ability to carry out their work.

Still, apologists for a military-led approach argue that militaries stabilize dangerous situations. Modern conflicts are very complex creatures that require time and resources to resolve. Long after the end of formal hostilities in Afghanistan, the Pakistani army still stations 10,000 men in its northern tribal areas on UN peacekeeping missions. Still, if humanitarian aid is a messy business, then military involvement only worsens it. The issue is that, as humanitarian and military mandates intersect, we are left with a new creature. And we have not learned how to manage it yet.

The Humanitarian Military
The world faces a new form of military activity in humanitarian spaces. In the wake of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the United States Department of Defense dispatched military units to participate in humanitarian efforts. A day after the earthquake struck, C-130 Hercules aircraft had airdropped 6 tons of cargo, vehicles, and equipment. Within a week, the USS Bataan had brought US Marines to Haiti to begin reconstruction efforts.

But militaries should not be beholden to the same rules as humanitarian agencies, and vice versa. Take, for instance, the Oslo Guidelines. Introduced in 1994 as rules to govern military aid in humanitarian work, they were revised in 2006 as a response to the unprecedented deployment of military forces following the natural disasters in 2005. These guidelines apply to disaster relief operations. But no equivalent guidelines exist for post-conflict reconstruction.
In fact, militaries in post-conflict humanitarian work often contravene these guidelines. Militaries often prefer to take the lead, refusing to cede authority to civilians—and as a result military and humanitarian operations often intersect. Furthermore, these engagements are plagued with the lack of a clear exit strategy. The problem is, these are the day-to-day realities of military deployments. Militaries are in the business of waging war, and humanitarian aid is an entirely new dimension to their work. Worse still, military forces are intensely mission-driven, putting them fundamentally at odds with humanitarianism. To accomplish “hearts and minds” counter-insurgency campaigns, some militaries even pursue overtly humanitarian objectives. Donald Steinberg, of the International Crisis Group, noted that soldiers are insufficiently trained to handle the social complexities of humanitarian crises. Adjusting to the realities of operating in a humanitarian space will require a fundamental realignment.

One potential solution is for governments to define the nature and scope of military operations in humanitarian settings. Civil-military cooperation may not be a bad thing. In many cases, it may even be the best solution in a bad situation. The problem arises in dealing with the emergence of new creature: the humanitarian military. Without proper guidelines, militaries and humanitarian organizations will be gambling with the lives of those they were meant to save.

Brendan Foo was a senior at Fordham College at Lincoln Center and can be contacted at

2,687 thoughts on “The Humanitarian Military”

  1. Pingback: find more info
  2. Pingback: see it here
  3. Pingback: create tv channel
  4. Pingback: GPS Receiver
  5. Pingback: seo consultant
  6. Pingback: look these up
  7. Pingback: seo agency
  8. Pingback: this content
  9. Pingback: get more info here
  10. Pingback: get more info here
  11. Pingback: plastic dial hand
  12. Pingback: Learn More
  13. Pingback: car lawyer
  14. Pingback: navigate here
  15. Pingback: Big clock parts
  16. Pingback: jeansshorts levis
  17. Pingback: Recommended Site
  18. Pingback: visit website here
  19. Pingback: Learn More
  20. Pingback: Check This Out
  21. Pingback: wedding dj’s
  22. Pingback: joes dj bozeman mt
  23. Pingback: puma soccer gloves
  24. Pingback: joes dj
  25. Pingback: best jordan 1s
  26. Pingback: composed miniskirt
  27. Pingback: ua moonrock yeezy
  28. Pingback: auto sync clocks
  29. Pingback: wireless products
  30. Pingback: click Here
  31. Pingback: Clock making parts
  32. Pingback: visit website here
  33. Pingback: clock movement
  34. Pingback: read more
  35. Pingback: wireless products
  36. Pingback: learn more
  37. Pingback: Contractor
  38. Pingback: plastic dial hand
  39. Pingback: metal clock hands
  40. Pingback: TI construction
  41. Pingback: chatbot service
  42. Pingback: wordpress seo
  43. Pingback: wireless products
  44. Pingback: business marketing
  45. Pingback: view it now
  46. Pingback: seo consultant
  47. Pingback: check this
  48. Pingback: video marketing
  49. Pingback: Related Site
  50. Pingback: chatbot services
  51. Pingback: what is a chatbot
  52. Pingback: visit homepage
  53. Pingback: list marketing
  54. Pingback: seo agency
  55. Pingback: ai voice chat
  56. Pingback: hat and cap seller
  57. Pingback: from this source
  58. Pingback:
  59. Pingback: imp source
  60. Pingback: chatbots agency
  61. Pingback: chatbot
  62. Pingback: facebook marketing
  63. Pingback: web optimization
  64. Pingback: basics
  65. Pingback: search engine
  66. Pingback: read more
  67. Pingback: Omaha SEO firm
  68. Pingback: see this site
  69. Pingback: basics
  70. Pingback: why not look here
  71. Pingback: auto lawyers
  72. Pingback: ai voice chat
  73. Pingback: auto injury law
  74. Pingback: see this site
  75. Pingback: fastdaxer amazon
  76. Pingback: clock accessories
  77. Pingback: crossfire pit
  78. Pingback: fire pit burners
  79. Pingback: Get More Info
  80. Pingback: click to read more
  81. Pingback: find more info
  82. Pingback: click Here
  83. Pingback: crossfire fire pit
  84. Pingback: check my blog
  85. Pingback: you can try here
  86. Pingback: useful reference
  87. Pingback: you can try here
  88. Pingback: Clock making parts
  89. Pingback: useful reference
  90. Pingback: click to read more
  91. Pingback: clock hands repair
  92. Pingback: parts of a clock
  93. Pingback: plastic dial hand
  94. Pingback: inglesine da donna
  95. Pingback: imp source
  96. Pingback: metal hands
  97. Pingback: this website
  98. Pingback: check over here
  99. Pingback: find more info
  100. Pingback: parts of a clock
  101. Pingback: custom fire pits
  102. Pingback: new balance h 754
  103. Pingback: fire pit kit
  104. Pingback: clock repair parts
  105. Pingback: sync system clock
  106. Pingback: fire pit
  107. Pingback: learn more
  108. Pingback: plastic dial hand
  109. Pingback: click Here
  110. Pingback: try this site
  111. Pingback: fire pits outdoor
  112. Pingback: diy gas fire pits
  113. Pingback: click Here
  114. Pingback: all chloe handbags
  115. Pingback: learn more
  116. Pingback: PA systems
  117. Pingback: Learn More
  118. Pingback: important link
  119. Pingback: my website
  120. Pingback: Clock making parts
  121. Pingback: PA systems
  122. Pingback: fire pit glass
  123. Pingback: click now
  124. Pingback: diy fire pits
  125. Pingback: my website
  126. Pingback: get more info here
  127. Pingback: get more info here
  128. Pingback: metal hands
  129. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  130. Pingback: learn more here
  131. Pingback: click now
  132. Pingback: tv over internet
  133. Pingback: roku tv internet
  134. Pingback: fire pits
  135. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  136. Pingback: click Here
  137. Pingback: clock manufacture
  138. Pingback: visit website here
  139. Pingback: parts of a clock
  140. Pingback: diy gas fire pits
  141. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  142. Pingback: auto injury law
  143. Pingback: link popularity
  144. Pingback: get more info here
  145. Pingback: Omaha SEO firm
  146. Pingback: article source
  147. Pingback: This Site
  148. Pingback: check my blog
  149. Pingback: review
  150. Pingback: business marketing
  151. Pingback: imp source
  152. Pingback: facebook chatbot
  153. Pingback: seo companies
  154. Pingback: online marketing
  155. Pingback: click to read m
  156. Pingback: wedding dj
  157. Pingback: twitter marketing
  158. Pingback: list marketing
  159. Pingback: wedding dj montana
  160. Pingback: advanced chatbot
  161. Pingback: how to use chatbot
  162. Pingback: dj in bozeman mt
  163. Pingback: google bot chat
  164. Pingback: seo billings
  165. Pingback: large clock hands
  166. Pingback: Clock making parts
  167. Pingback: warming trends co
  168. Pingback: learn more here
  169. Pingback: see it here
  170. Pingback: whitefish seo
  171. Pingback: clock movement
  172. Pingback: Missoula SEO Geek
  173. Pingback: seo whitefish
  174. Pingback: This Site
  175. Pingback: click Here
  176. Pingback: auto sync clocks
  177. Pingback: wireless products
  178. Pingback: click Here
  179. Pingback: Towne Mailer
  180. Pingback: crossfire fire pit
  181. Pingback: clock accessories
  182. Pingback: large clock hands
  183. Pingback: warming trends
  184. Pingback: find more info
  185. Pingback: pendulum movements
  186. Pingback: click to read more
  187. Pingback: Check It Out Here
  188. Pingback: plastic dial hand
  189. Pingback: custom crossfire
  190. Pingback: news
  191. Pingback: wireless products
  192. Pingback: metal clock hands
  193. Pingback: Clock making parts
  194. Pingback: wireless products
  195. Pingback: metal hands
  196. Pingback: check my blog
  197. Pingback: navigate here
  198. Pingback: Big clock parts
  199. Pingback: website here
  200. Pingback: learn more
  201. Pingback: news
  202. Pingback: Continued
  203. Pingback: PA systems
  204. Pingback: parts for clocks
  205. Pingback: plastic dial hand
  206. Pingback: visit website here
  207. Pingback: this contact form
  208. Pingback: parts for clocks
  209. Pingback: learn more here
  210. Pingback: read more
  211. Pingback: project management
  212. Pingback: try this
  213. Pingback: read more
  214. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  215. Pingback: Contractor
  216. Pingback: roku tv internet
  217. Pingback: i was reading this
  218. Pingback: roku tv internet
  219. Pingback: get more info here
  220. Pingback: Learn More
  221. Pingback: try this
  222. Pingback: this page
  223. Pingback: Continued
  224. Pingback: look at these guys
  225. Pingback: web optimization
  226. Pingback: navigate here
  227. Pingback: chatbot service
  228. Pingback: custom chatbot
  229. Pingback: seo services
  230. Pingback: see this here
  231. Pingback: why not look here
  232. Pingback: internet marketing
  233. Pingback: more helpful hints
  234. Pingback: GPS Receiver
  235. Pingback: visite site
  236. Pingback: site link
  237. Pingback: keyword analysis
  238. Pingback: this page
  239. Pingback: london relocation
  240. Pingback: my review here
  241. Pingback: This Site
  242. Pingback: moved here
  243. Pingback: project management
  244. Pingback: automobile lawyers
  245. Pingback: car lawyer
  246. Pingback: Click Here
  247. Pingback: the chanel boy bag
  248. Pingback: visite site
  249. Pingback: joes dj bozeman mt
  250. Pingback: zapatillas gucci 4
  251. Pingback: kalispell seo
  252. Pingback: index
  253. Pingback: chatbot services
  254. Pingback: Click This Link
  255. Pingback: joes dj bozeman
  256. Pingback: Related Site
  257. Pingback: seo great falls
  258. Pingback: seo kalispell
  259. Pingback: chatbot consulting
  260. Pingback: linked here
  261. Pingback: seo billings
  262. Pingback: Contractor
  263. Pingback: her latest blog
  264. Pingback: see page
  265. Pingback: helpful resources
  266. Pingback: ford puma t reg
  267. Pingback: click to read more
  268. Pingback: chatbot design
  269. Pingback: video seo
  270. Pingback: online marketing
  271. Pingback: check out here
  272. Pingback: seo specialist
  273. Pingback: online marketing
  274. Pingback: chatbot design
  275. Pingback: chatbot companies
  276. Pingback: placement services
  277. Pingback: find more info
  278. Pingback: advice
  279. Pingback: search engine
  280. Pingback: clock movement
  281. Pingback: metal hands
  282. Pingback: seo company
  283. Pingback: read review
  284. Pingback: Check It Out Here
  285. Pingback: clocks for schools
  286. Pingback: billings seo
  287. Pingback: missoula seo
  288. Pingback: learn more
  289. Pingback: Check It Out Here
  290. Pingback: kalispell seo
  291. Pingback: great falls seo
  292. Pingback: joes dj service
  293. Pingback: auto sync clocks
  294. Pingback: wireless products
  295. Pingback: Missoula SEO Geek
  296. Pingback: check my blog
  297. Pingback: Clock making parts
  298. Pingback: Clock making parts
  299. Pingback: this content
  300. Pingback: wedding djs
  301. Pingback: click Here
  302. Pingback: visit website here
  303. Pingback: large clock hands
  304. Pingback: Omaha SEO services
  305. Pingback: large clock hands
  306. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  307. Pingback: Learn More
  308. Pingback: auto lawyers
  309. Pingback: automotive lawyers
  310. Pingback: click site
  311. Pingback: automotive lawyers
  312. Pingback: auto lawyer
  313. Pingback: check over here
  314. Pingback: link popularity
  315. Pingback: informative post
  316. Pingback: Big clock parts
  317. Pingback: outsourcing seo
  318. Pingback: get more info here
  319. Pingback: page rankings
  320. Pingback: clock accessories
  321. Pingback: email marketing
  322. Pingback: this page
  323. Pingback: click over here
  324. Pingback: local social
  325. Pingback: read more
  326. Pingback: Omaha SEO expert
  327. Pingback: fb chatbot
  328. Pingback: large clock hands
  329. Pingback: youtube marketing
  330. Pingback: wordpress seo
  331. Pingback: seo company
  332. Pingback: fb chatbot
  333. Pingback: clock movement
  334. Pingback: Big clock parts
  335. Pingback: clock accessories
  336. Pingback: advanced chatbot
  337. Pingback: clock accessories
  338. Pingback: this page
  339. Pingback: how to use chatbot
  340. Pingback: python chatbot
  341. Pingback: this website
  342. Pingback: chatbot
  343. Pingback: financial planner
  344. Pingback: voice chatbot
  345. Pingback: chatbots agency
  346. Pingback: sync system clock
  347. Pingback: oil for heartburn
  348. Pingback: read review
  349. Pingback: get more info
  350. Pingback: click
  351. Pingback: see this
  352. Pingback: check it out here
  353. Pingback: click to read more
  354. Pingback: try here
  355. Pingback: click here
  356. Pingback: financial advisor
  357. Pingback: click to read more
  358. Pingback: my sources
  359. Pingback: estate planning
  360. Pingback: view website
  361. Pingback: click site
  362. Pingback: get more info here
  363. Pingback: dj in montana
  364. Pingback: Crack
  365. Pingback: local+social+media
  366. Pingback: metal hands
  367. Pingback: click Here
  368. Pingback: Learn More
  369. Pingback: Learn More
  370. Pingback: auto injury law
  371. Pingback: clocks for schools
  372. Pingback: automobile lawyers
  373. Pingback: imp source
  374. Pingback: great post to read
  375. Pingback: more info here
  376. Pingback: site optimization
  377. Pingback: see this here
  378. Pingback: check my blog
  379. Pingback: site optimization
  380. Pingback: auto sync clocks
  381. Pingback: read this now
  382. Pingback: list marketing
  383. Pingback: chatbots agency
  384. Pingback: Check This Out
  385. Pingback: seo firms
  386. Pingback: Source
  387. Pingback: placement company
  388. Pingback: chat bot python
  389. Pingback: weblink
  390. Pingback: Omaha SEO agency
  391. Pingback: business marketing
  392. Pingback: twitter marketing
  393. Pingback: metal hands
  394. Pingback: click site
  395. Pingback: metal clock dials
  396. Pingback: read what he said
  397. Pingback: plastic dial hand
  398. Pingback: web development
  399. Pingback: wedding dj’s
  400. Pingback: Missoula SEO Geek
  401. Pingback: builder
  402. Pingback: clock Hands Repair
  403. Pingback: Big clock parts
  404. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  405. Pingback: list marketing
  406. Pingback: visit website here
  407. Pingback: best contractor
  408. Pingback: Learn More
  409. Pingback: plastic dial hand
  410. Pingback: TI construction
  411. Pingback: facebook marketing
  412. Pingback: parts for clocks
  413. Pingback: click Here
  414. Pingback: clock manufacture
  415. Pingback: google ai chat bot
  416. Pingback: Learn More
  417. Pingback: read more
  418. Pingback: email marketing
  419. Pingback: clock accessories
  420. Pingback: page rankings
  421. Pingback: video seo
  422. Pingback: python ai chatbot
  423. Pingback: twitter marketing
  424. Pingback: this page
  425. Pingback: ai and chatbots
  426. Pingback: imp source
  427. Pingback: Omaha SEO company
  428. Pingback: video seo
  429. Pingback: clocks for schools
  430. Pingback: get more info
  431. Pingback: python ai chatbot
  432. Pingback: keyword analysis
  433. Pingback: click for more
  434. Pingback: what is a chatbot
  435. Pingback: auto sync clocks
  436. Pingback: email marketing
  437. Pingback: navigate here
  438. Pingback: click here
  439. Pingback: chatbots
  440. Pingback: chatbot consulting
  441. Pingback: page
  442. Pingback: wealth management
  443. Pingback: see this here
  444. Pingback: wealth management
  445. Pingback: Clock making parts
  446. Pingback: Clock making parts
  447. Pingback: outsourced seo
  448. Pingback: metal hands
  449. Pingback: wealth management
  450. Pingback: parts of a clock
  451. Pingback: financial planner
  452. Pingback: her latest blog
  453. Pingback: Big clock parts
  454. Pingback: clock dials
  455. Pingback: social selling
  456. Pingback: Clock repair parts
  457. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  458. Pingback: visit website
  459. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  460. Pingback: large clock hands
  461. Pingback: clock movement
  462. Pingback: get more info here
  463. Pingback: clock movement
  464. Pingback: Contractor
  465. Pingback: local social media
  466. Pingback: parts of a clock
  467. Pingback: for privacy policy
  468. Pingback: visit website now
  469. Pingback: Check It Out Here
  470. Pingback: metal clock dials
  471. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  472. Pingback: get more info
  473. Pingback: clock movement
  474. Pingback: sync system clock
  475. Pingback: more info here
  476. Pingback: chat bot python
  477. Pingback: python chatbot
  478. Pingback: online marketing
  479. Pingback: wireless products
  480. Pingback: sync system clock
  481. Pingback: GPS Receiver
  482. Pingback: plastic dial hand
  483. Pingback: click here
  484. Pingback: chatbot agency
  485. Pingback: seo service
  486. Pingback: what is a chatbot
  487. Pingback: london relocation
  488. Pingback: advice here
  489. Pingback: chatbot agency
  490. Pingback: seo outsource
  491. Pingback: chatbot services
  492. Pingback: click here
  493. Pingback: parenting coaches
  494. Pingback: parental coaching
  495. Pingback: parts for clocks
  496. Pingback: gas fire pit kit
  497. Pingback: seo
  498. Pingback: seo agency
  499. Pingback: gas fire ring
  500. Pingback: outdoor fire pit
  501. Pingback: how to stand out
  502. Pingback: financial planning
  503. Pingback: seo great falls
  504. Pingback: bozeman seo
  505. Pingback: builder
  506. Pingback: Missoula SEO Geek
  507. Pingback: get more info here
  508. Pingback: go to website
  509. Pingback: click me
  510. Pingback: financial advisor
  511. Pingback: terms of service
  512. Pingback: Contractor
  513. Pingback: visit website here
  514. Pingback: auto wreck lawyer
  515. Pingback: social campaign
  516. Pingback: privacy policy
  517. Pingback: project management
  518. Pingback: best contractor
  519. Pingback: great site
  520. Pingback: wealth management
  521. Pingback: look here
  522. Pingback: visit website
  523. Pingback: wealth management
  524. Pingback: wealth management
  525. Pingback: auto lawyers
  526. Pingback: see now
  527. Pingback: collision lawyer
  528. Pingback: local social media
  529. Pingback: Learn More now
  530. Pingback: auto lawyers
  531. Pingback: financial advisors
  532. Pingback: read more now
  533. Pingback: auto wreck lawyer
  534. Pingback: get more info
  535. Pingback: click for more
  536. Pingback: visit website here
  537. Pingback: collision lawyer
  538. Pingback: car attorney
  539. Pingback: internet site
  540. Pingback: Towne Mailer
  541. Pingback: look here
  542. Pingback: automobile lawyers
  543. Pingback: car lawyer
  544. Pingback: letter
  545. Pingback: Learn More now
  546. Pingback: click for more
  547. Pingback: visit website
  548. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  549. Pingback: visit website
  550. Pingback: collision lawyer
  551. Pingback: metal hands
  552. Pingback: automobile lawyers
  553. Pingback: visit website now
  554. Pingback: visit website
  555. Pingback: online
  556. Pingback: click for more
  557. Pingback: automotive lawyers
  558. Pingback: great site
  559. Pingback: Big clock parts
  560. Pingback: automotive lawyers
  561. Pingback: click for more
  562. Pingback: clock dials
  563. Pingback: automobile lawyers
  564. Pingback: collision lawyer
  565. Pingback: london realty
  566. Pingback: visit website now
  567. Pingback: relocation agent
  568. Pingback: visit website now
  569. Pingback: click for more
  570. Pingback: great site
  571. Pingback: visit website here
  572. Pingback: moving company uk
  573. Pingback: ai bot online
  574. Pingback: hangouts chat bot
  575. Pingback: company relocation
  576. Pingback: Clock making parts
  577. Pingback: company relocation
  578. Pingback: london moving uk
  579. Pingback: clock accessories
  580. Pingback: relocation uk
  581. Pingback: realtor london
  582. Pingback: ai bot
  583. Pingback: link popularity
  584. Pingback: relocation firms
  585. Pingback: twilio chat bot
  586. Pingback: relocation london
  587. Pingback: list marketing
  588. Pingback: build a bot
  589. Pingback: london realty
  590. Pingback: parts of a clock
  591. Pingback: company relocation
  592. Pingback: relocation uk
  593. Pingback: moving company uk
  594. Pingback: visit website here
  595. Pingback: wordpress blogs
  596. Pingback: how chatbot works
  597. Pingback: symantic web
  598. Pingback: mls london
  599. Pingback: skype chatbot
  600. Pingback: london moving uk
  601. Pingback: london moving uk
  602. Pingback: googleplus
  603. Pingback: create chatbot
  604. Pingback: Omaha SEO expert
  605. Pingback: visit website here
  606. Pingback: youtube marketing
  607. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  608. Pingback: video marketing
  609. Pingback: chatbot platform
  610. Pingback: google chat bots
  611. Pingback: check it out here
  612. Pingback: skype chatbot
  613. Pingback: wordpress plugins
  614. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  615. Pingback: web optimization
  616. Pingback: why chatbots
  617. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  618. Pingback: clock accessories
  619. Pingback: Omaha SEO services
  620. Pingback: get more info here
  621. Pingback: Learn More
  622. Pingback: outsourced seo
  623. Pingback: outsourcing seo
  624. Pingback: chat robot
  625. Pingback: clock manufacture
  626. Pingback: placement company
  627. Pingback: online ai
  628. Pingback: check it out
  629. Pingback: metal clock dials
  630. Pingback: wordpress blogs
  631. Pingback: clock accessories
  632. Pingback: custom chatbot
  633. Pingback: white label seo
  634. Pingback: web optimization
  635. Pingback: chatbot maker
  636. Pingback: metal clock dials
  637. Pingback: visit here
  638. Pingback: Omaha SEO expert
  639. Pingback: best seo reseller
  640. Pingback: check it out here
  641. Pingback: marketing agencies
  642. Pingback: visit here
  643. Pingback: twitter marketing
  644. Pingback: read more
  645. Pingback: why outsource seo
  646. Pingback: chatbot online
  647. Pingback: chatbot builder
  648. Pingback: search engine
  649. Pingback: seo outsource
  650. Pingback: marketing firm
  651. Pingback: email marketing
  652. Pingback: get info here
  653. Pingback: clock movement
  654. Pingback: best ai chatbot
  655. Pingback: outsource your seo
  656. Pingback: metal clock dials
  657. Pingback: clock movement
  658. Pingback: get info here
  659. Pingback: smart bot chat
  660. Pingback: the best chatbot
  661. Pingback: metal clock dials
  662. Pingback: marketing agencies
  663. Pingback: why outsource seo
  664. Pingback: marketing firm
  665. Pingback: check it out
  666. Pingback: why chatbots
  667. Pingback: large clock hands
  668. Pingback: video marketing
  669. Pingback: online marketing
  670. Pingback: why outsource seo
  671. Pingback: business marketing
  672. Pingback: clock manufacture
  673. Pingback: the best chatbot
  674. Pingback: youtube marketing
  675. Pingback: best seo reseller
  676. Pingback: read more
  677. Pingback: clock accessories
  678. Pingback: Omaha SEO agency
  679. Pingback: facebook marketing
  680. Pingback: seo services
  681. Pingback: metal hands
  682. Pingback: placement services
  683. Pingback: clock movement
  684. Pingback: seo outsourcing
  685. Pingback: wordpress plugins
  686. Pingback: seo outsourcing
  687. Pingback: seo reseller plans
  688. Pingback: click here
  689. Pingback: metal clock dials
  690. Pingback: click Here
  691. Pingback: video marketing
  692. Pingback: click here
  693. Pingback: content writing
  694. Pingback: Omaha SEO services
  695. Pingback: web optimization
  696. Pingback: marketing agencies
  697. Pingback: Omaha SEO company
  698. Pingback: outsource seo
  699. Pingback: clock accessories
  700. Pingback: video marketing
  701. Pingback: Omaha SEO firm
  702. Pingback: business marketing
  703. Pingback: outsource seo
  704. Pingback: metal clock dials
  705. Pingback: best seo reseller
  706. Pingback: get more info here
  707. Pingback: parts of a clock
  708. Pingback: Omaha SEO
  709. Pingback: get more info
  710. Pingback: outsource your seo
  711. Pingback: joomla ecommerce
  712. Pingback: clocks for schools
  713. Pingback: best seo reseller
  714. Pingback: GPS Receiver
  715. Pingback: googleplus
  716. Pingback: marketing firm
  717. Pingback: sync system clock
  718. Pingback: get more info here
  719. Pingback: online marketing
  720. Pingback: learn more
  721. Pingback: symantic web
  722. Pingback: GPS Receiver
  723. Pingback: clocks for schools
  724. Pingback: more info
  725. Pingback: sync system clock
  726. Pingback: more info
  727. Pingback: white label seo
  728. Pingback: click Here
  729. Pingback: Montana Firepit
  730. Pingback: clock manufacture
  731. Pingback: outsourced seo
  732. Pingback: crossfire fire pit
  733. Pingback: Check It Out Here
  734. Pingback: sync system clock
  735. Pingback: parts for clocks
  736. Pingback: visit website
  737. Pingback: bozeman seo agency
  738. Pingback: Missoula SEO Geek
  739. Pingback: Montana Firepits
  740. Pingback: car lawyer
  741. Pingback: Montana Firepits
  742. Pingback: learn more
  743. Pingback: seo bozeman
  744. Pingback: Montana Firepit
  745. Pingback: more information
  746. Pingback: relocate uk
  747. Pingback: read more
  748. Pingback: View More
  749. Pingback: learn more
  750. Pingback: click here
  751. Pingback: bozeman seo agency
  752. Pingback: seo bozeman
  753. Pingback: Montana Firepits
  754. Pingback: go here
  755. Pingback: kalispell seo
  756. Pingback: great falls seo
  757. Pingback: seo billings
  758. Pingback: Montana Fire Pits
  759. Pingback: aircraft hangars
  760. Pingback: See More
  761. Pingback: auto injury law
  762. Pingback: Montana Firepits
  763. Pingback: more info
  764. Pingback: auto lawyers
  765. Pingback: crossfire burner
  766. Pingback: Confident Parent
  767. Pingback: aircraft hangars
  768. Pingback: click here
  769. Pingback: parenting programs
  770. Pingback: kalispell seo
  771. Pingback: aircraft hangar
  772. Pingback: social selling
  773. Pingback: great falls seo
  774. Pingback: Click Here
  775. Pingback: crossfire fire pit
  776. Pingback: parents coach
  777. Pingback: parenting coaches
  778. Pingback: seo great falls
  779. Pingback: automobile lawyers
  780. Pingback: Facility Builders
  781. Pingback: See More
  782. Pingback: View More
  783. Pingback: Learn More
  784. Pingback: collision lawyer
  785. Pingback: seo bozeman
  786. Pingback: parents coach
  787. Pingback: great falls seo
  788. Pingback: seo billings
  789. Pingback: parent coaches
  790. Pingback: read more
  791. Pingback: facebook ads
  792. Pingback: financial planning
  793. Pingback: more information
  794. Pingback: parental coach
  795. Pingback: seo company omaha
  796. Pingback: seo expert
  797. Pingback: see more here
  798. Pingback: click here
  799. Pingback: bozeman seo
  800. Pingback: clock manufacture
  801. Pingback: parenting programs
  802. Pingback: seo agency omaha
  803. Pingback: HeartStone Advisor
  804. Pingback:
  805. Pingback: asset management
  806. Pingback: bozeman seo
  807. Pingback: more information
  808. Pingback: HeartStone Advisor
  809. Pingback: learn more
  810. Pingback: learn more
  811. Pingback: See All
  812. Pingback: bozeman seo
  813. Pingback: wealth management
  814. Pingback: omaha seo
  815. Pingback: get more info
  816. Pingback: seo outsourcing
  817. Pingback: find us here
  818. Pingback: outsourcing seo
  819. Pingback: outsource seo
  820. Pingback: Learn More
  821. Pingback: bozeman seo agency
  822. Pingback: outsource seo
  823. Pingback: HeartStone Advisor
  824. Pingback: seo firm omaha
  825. Pingback: omaha news
  826. Pingback: financial advisor
  827. Pingback: click here
  828. Pingback: see here
  829. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  830. Pingback: click here
  831. Pingback: outsourcing seo
  832. Pingback: visit here
  833. Pingback: omaha seo services
  834. Pingback: seo outsource
  835. Pingback: Clock repair parts
  836. Pingback: outsourced seo
  837. Pingback: check it out here
  838. Pingback: learn more
  839. Pingback: HeartStone Advisor
  840. Pingback: seo services omaha
  841. Pingback: clock manufacture
  842. Pingback: check it out
  843. Pingback: outsourced seo
  844. Pingback: more information
  845. Pingback: Clock repair parts
  846. Pingback: see more here
  847. Pingback: clock manufacture
  848. Pingback: check it out
  849. Pingback: omaha seo services
  850. Pingback: video marketing
  851. Pingback: omaha news
  852. Pingback: financial advisors
  853. Pingback: Big clock parts
  854. Pingback: parts of a clock
  855. Pingback: see here
  856. Pingback: wealth management
  857. Pingback: outsource your seo
  858. Pingback: Clock making parts
  859. Pingback: seo outsource
  860. Pingback: parts of a clock
  861. Pingback: seo services
  862. Pingback: plastic dial hand
  863. Pingback: more information
  864. Pingback: seo services
  865. Pingback: read more
  866. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  867. Pingback: financial advisor
  868. Pingback: see here
  869. Pingback: get more info
  870. Pingback: Find More Here
  871. Pingback: clock mechanisms
  872. Pingback: clock movement
  873. Pingback: learn more
  874. Pingback: see more here
  875. Pingback: chatbot trends
  876. Pingback: outsource your seo
  877. Pingback: plastic dial hand
  878. Pingback: get info here
  879. Pingback: click Here
  880. Pingback:
  881. Pingback: more information
  882. Pingback: click here
  883. Pingback: seo reseller plans
  884. Pingback: chatbots
  885. Pingback: read more
  886. Pingback: learn more
  887. Pingback: Visit
  888. Pingback: outsourcing seo
  889. Pingback: learn more
  890. Pingback: social trends
  891. Pingback: get info here
  892. Pingback: Montanafirepits
  893. Pingback: Click Here
  894. Pingback: fire pit bowls
  895. Pingback: learn more
  896. Pingback: Montana Fire Pit
  897. Pingback: lowes fire pit kit
  898. Pingback: read more
  899. Pingback: facebook chat bot
  900. Pingback: sync system clock
  901. Pingback: View More
  902. Pingback: Get More Info
  903. Pingback: Get More Info
  904. Pingback: fire glass pit
  905. Pingback: chatbot technology
  906. Pingback: pit burners
  907. Pingback: see here
  908. Pingback: seo outsourcing
  909. Pingback: seo reseller plans
  910. Pingback: chatbot
  911. Pingback: google chatbots
  912. Pingback: get info here
  913. Pingback: fire glass pit
  914. Pingback: facebook chatbots
  915. Pingback: chat bots
  916. Pingback: fire pit rings
  917. Pingback: bot market
  918. Pingback: google chatbots
  919. Pingback: Montana Firepits
  920. Pingback: Warming trends
  921. Pingback: why outsource seo
  922. Pingback: fire pit burner
  923. Pingback: Click Here
  924. Pingback: internet bot
  925. Pingback: chatbot strategy
  926. Pingback: white label seo
  927. Pingback: bots
  928. Pingback: Check It Out Here
  929. Pingback: ai technology
  930. Pingback: best seo reseller
  931. Pingback: why outsource seo
  932. Pingback: bot marketing
  933. Pingback: View More
  934. Pingback: Montana Fire Pits
  935. Pingback: Find More Here
  936. Pingback: Find More Here
  937. Pingback: chatbot
  938. Pingback: social trends
  939. Pingback: sync system clock
  940. Pingback: fire pit rings
  941. Pingback: lowes fire pit kit
  942. Pingback: sales chatbot
  943. Pingback: chatbot trends
  944. Pingback: social trends
  945. Pingback: chatbot marketing
  946. Pingback: get more info
  947. Pingback: fire pit burner
  948. Pingback: chatbot
  949. Pingback: google chatbots
  950. Pingback: chat bots
  951. Pingback: facebook chatbots
  952. Pingback: check it out here
  953. Pingback: what is a chatbot
  954. Pingback: Visit Today
  955. Pingback: billings local seo
  956. Pingback: get more info here
  957. Pingback: Montana Firepits
  958. Pingback: Montana Firepits
  959. Pingback: smm company
  960. Pingback: crossfire fire pit
  961. Pingback: Visit Now
  962. Pingback: See All
  963. Pingback: Crossfire burner
  964. Pingback: parenting coaches
  965. Pingback: pit burners

Leave a Reply